Land, Propery and Reparation

Land, property and reparations issues play an ever increasing role in reconciliation, peace-building and reconstruction efforts and are an important rehabilitation tool for countries in transition. Nepal continues to recover from the decade-long armed conflict (1996-2006), which resulted in gross human rights violations. To date, these violations remain largely unaddressed and significant gaps remain in the areas of provision of relief and access to justice for conflict victims especially the survivors of Conflict Related Sexual Violence (CRSV). Building on past successful coordination and partnership with the Government of Nepal, IOM seeks to continue its work in the areas of victims assistance programs improving access to services and justice.

Strengthening the capacity of the Government of Nepal to address Conflict Related Sexual Violence (CRSV) in the National Action Plan (NAP) Second Phase on UNSCRs 1325 and 1820


In the pretext that Conflict Related Sexual Violence (CRSV) was perpetrated by all parties during the decade-long armed conflict in Nepal, however, many survivors are reluctant to be vocal due to the fear of stigmatization and other threats and no guarantee of service. In response, IOM initiated a project entitled, “Strengthening the capacity of the Government of Nepal to address Conflict Related Sexual Violence (CRSV) in the National Action Plan (NAP) Second Phase on UNSCRs 1325 and 1820” from June  - November 2017 in five selected conflict affected districts of Nepal. The project engaged with GoN- MoPR, conflict victims including CRSV survivors and related stakeholders by creating an enabling environment for discussion on the issue of CRSV and ensured victims’ rights of access to services and justice through the second phase of the government’s NAP on 1325 and 1820. It also strengthened the capacity of conflict victim group in providing inputs on the government’s policy and plan through an inclusive and participatory process to focus on gender responsiveness, victim-centric and gender sensitive transitional justice for conflict affected victims and survivors of CRSV.

The project was part of UN Women Nepal’s  Advancing Resilience and Empowerment of Women and Girls (ARE) Project and was in line with the UN position on CRSV. The project contributed to the focus on CRSV in the second phase of the implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP) on implementing United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs) 1325 and 1820.

Psychosocial Counselling and Support Services to Conflict-Affected Person

Since it was first initiated in March 2013, the IOM has successfully provided technical assistance to the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction (MoPR) in implementing psychosocial counselling and support services for conflict-affected persons and their families with support from the UN Peace Fund for Nepal (UNPFN). This project concluded in 2015.



Catalytic Support on Land Issues

This joint project with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme concluded in 2015. Through this project, the IOM took the lead in addressing issues related to land by providing technical assistance, capacity building and expert support to the Ministry of Land Reform and Management and the MoPR. The project was funded by the global UN Peacebuilding Fund through the UN Peace Fund for Nepal and contributed to addressing one of the root causes of the ten-year armed conflict. The project piloted its activities in three districts, supporting the local institutions to improve their land management systems and in implementing land use plans, while at the same time encouraging a productive and inclusive dialogue on the issues that remain unsolved. Furthermore, the project supported the Government in preparing a comprehensive and unified land act.

Empowering Women 4 Women (W4W): Access to Land for Sustainable Peace in Nepal


This project was built upon the main findings and gaps identified by the ‘Catalytic Support on Land Issues’ (2013- 2015) project by including women that were almost absent and/ or not able to make their voices heard in the land reform discussions process. The project aimed to support the processes associated or linked with land reform in Nepal by enabling women to play an active role as agents of change. In doing so, the project is contributing to ensuring gender equality in land policy discussions and enabling women to influence the policy decisions.

The project promoted a W4W approach, where qualified women teachers used contextualized modules to enhance capacities of other women, on land rights and system as well as advocacy and negotiation skills. The W4W approach ensured a constructive environment for learning as well as participatory and long lasting impacts. In this way, the project was unpacking land issues pertinent to women in small steps and introducing components related to women empowerment and rights to women over land and property, thus facilitating catalytic changes that supported the future land reform process, including by facilitating the changes of attitude, perspectives and social mores in the Nepalese society, and giving due consideration to women’s specific needs and ideas at the policy level.

Conflict Related Sexual Violence (CRSV)


“Building the Foundation for Access to Justice and Reparation for Conflict Related Sexual Violence Survivors (CRSV)” is a joint project between the IOM and the United Nations Population Fund funded by the UNPFN completed its activities in December 2015. The overall objective of the project is to scale up conflict and gender sensitive services addressing post conflict needs of victims of sexual violence. Under this project the IOM developed and handed over the CRSV Case Management Protocol in the context of service provision programs in Nepal to support the MoPR to provide guidance on eventual standardization of existing and new data on CRSV in Nepal and to enable the creation of a centralized CRSV database. Furthermore, this Protocol offers practical advice on how to design and carry out ethical and victim-centric case management for survivors of CRSV in Nepal. The Protocol provides internationally recognized standards to guide the basic information documentation at the request of the survivor, and a survivor-centric needs assessment that can facilitate subsequent service provision and/or referral. Additionally, technical assistance to MoPR is continued to better ensure effective implementation of psychosocial counselling and support services for conflict victims including CRSV and community members as a whole. The targeted project districts are the districts selected by MoPR to roll out psychosocial counselling services i.e. Morang, Jhapa, Makwanpur, Chitwan, Kasaki, Gorkha, Rolpa, Rukum, Kailali and Kanchanpur.

Technical Assistance to Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction to ensure Effective access of Conflict Affected Persons to Victims Assistance Processes in Nepal 


Funded by the IOM Development Fund (IDF), the overall objective of the project is to ensure effective access of Conflict Affected Persons (CAP)s to victim assistance programs in Nepal through established centralized database for CAPs assistance in congruence with the United Nations Development Assistance Framework Outcome 8, as well as to build capacity of key government institutions to provide effective access of existing services to CAPs. The project districts include Morang, Jhapa, Makwanpur, Chitwan, Kasaki, Gorkha, Rolpa, Rukum, Kailali and Kanchanpur. Under this project, the IOM developed a centralized database web portal for the past and ongoing CAPs assistance programs provided to the conflict victims by different service providers (I/NGOs, UN agencies and Govt.). Intensive research (both qualitative and quantitative) has been conducted in 5 project districts to identify the quality of reparation processes implemented by MoPR. Based on the findings, the project has developed a Training Module to bridge the gap and area for improved future reparation programs. Training based on the module was provided to the officials of the MoPR, Ministry of Women Children and Social Welfare and female representatives of Local Peace Committee of all the 10 project districts in different areas like, Human Right Based Approach, Transitional Justice, Gender and Conflict Sensitivity and Communication skills.

Fairness and Efficiency in Reparations

Between May 2010 and February 2012, IOM Nepal, in partnership with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and with support from the global UN Peacebuilding Fund through the UN Peace Fund for Nepal (UNPFN) implemented the project “Fairness and Efficiency in Reparations to Conflict Affected Persons in Nepal". The project aimed to strengthen and consolidate the peace process through efficient and transparent delivery of reparations to conflict affected victims. Key outcomes of the project were the development of a comprehensive reparations policy and administrative tools, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and guidelines, which were presented for consideration to the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction (MoPR), victims group and other relevant stakeholders. The MoPR, twelve selected District Administration Offices and conflict victims were the primary beneficiaries of this project. Effective and transparent organizational structures and implementation procedures were designed to implement a future reparations programme. These endeavours included mapping of existing interim relief mechanisms, designing an outreach strategy and implementation plan, designing a strategy for the collection and registration of victims and beneficiaries’ data, process-flows and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the processing of victims’ reparation claims.

IOM also extended technical assistance to the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction(MoPR) in the implementation of the World Bank-funded Employment Self Employment Program (ESES) for conflict affected persons. Areas of support included the development and implementation of an outreach strategy and production and dissemination of promotional materials, development of a grievance mechanism, trainings and administrative support and design of an NGO coordination mechanism.

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